Friday, June 22, 2012

Neuroimaging in Autism: Fractional anisotropy values - AJP CME Course for June 2012: Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present From 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism

Neuroimaging in Autism: Fractional anisotropy values - AJP CME Course for June 2012: Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present From 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism

fractional anisotropy values - GS 

normal fractional anisotropy values - GS 


Fractional anisotropy 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process. A value of zero means that diffusion is isotropic, i.e. it is unrestricted (or equally restricted) in all directions. A value of one means that diffusion occurs only along one axis and is fully restricted along all other directions. FA is a measure often used in diffusion imaging where it is thought to reflect fiber density, axonal diameter, and myelination in white matter. The FA is an extension of the concept of eccentricity of conic sections in 3 dimensions, normalized to the unit range.


autism neuroimaging fractional anisotropy - Pubmed Search

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Autism neuroimaging - Fractional anisotropy - pubmed_result

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Diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy of the normal-appearing seven segments of the corpus callosum in healthy adults and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients

  1. Khader M. Hasan PhD1,*,
  2. Rakesh K. Gupta MD1,
  3. Rafael M. Santos MD, FRCS1,
  4. Jerry S. Wolinsky MD2,
  5. Ponnada A. Narayana PhD1
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2005
DOI: 10.1002/jmri.20296

Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Volume 21, Issue 6, pages 735–743, June 2005

How to Cite

Hasan, K. M., Gupta, R. K., Santos, R. M., Wolinsky, J. S. and Narayana, P. A. (2005), Diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy of the normal-appearing seven segments of the corpus callosum in healthy adults and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 21: 735–743. doi: 10.1002/jmri.20296

Author Information

  1. 1 Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
  2. 2 Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA
*Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, MSB 2.100, Houston, TX 77030
  1. Presented in part at the 12th Annual Meeting of ISMRM, Kyoto, Japan, 2004 (abstract 1498). The acquisition, processing, and quantitative analysis methodologies were also described in abstracts 338 and 1350 presented at the same meeting.

Publication History

  1. Issue published online: 19 MAY 2005
  2. Article first published online: 19 MAY 2005
  3. Manuscript Accepted: 7 FEB 2005
  4. Manuscript Received: 16 DEC 2004

Funded by

  • NIH. Grant Numbers: R01 NS31499, R01 EB02095
  • Dunn Research Foundation
  • Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas at Houston




  • diffusion tensor imaging;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • corpus callosum



To investigate the utility of whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in elucidating the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) using the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the corpus callosum (CC) as a marker of occult disease activity.

Materials and Methods

A high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and optimized entire brain DTI data were acquired in 26 clinically-definite relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 32 age-matched healthy adult controls. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values of seven functionally distinct regions in the normal-appearing CC were compared between patients and controls.


This study indicates that 1) there was a gender-independent FA heterogeneity of the functionally specialized CC segments in normal volunteers; 2) FA in the MS group was significantly decreased in the anterior (P = 0.0039) and posterior (P = 0.0018) midbody subdivisions of the CC, possibly due to a reduction of small-caliber axons; and 3) the FA of the genu of the CC was relatively intact in the MS patients compared to the healthy age-matched controls (P = 0.644), while the splenium showed an insignificant trend of reduced FA values (P = 0.248). The decrease in FA in any of the CC subdivisions did not correlate with disease duration (DD) or the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score.


The preliminary results are consistent with published histopathology and clinical studies on MS, but not with some published DTI reports. This study provides insights into the pathogenesis of MS, and the role played by compromised axonal integrity in this disease. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2005;21:735–743. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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June 01, 2012
AJP CME Course for June 2012: Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present From 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism
Expires May 31, 2014

Estimates of the fractional anisotropy slope parameters with standard errors are presented for the ASD-positive and -negative groups for all tracts in Table 2. Both groups showed significant increases in fractional anisotropy from 6 to 24 months, though the rate of change for the ASD-negative group was significantly greater than that for the ASD-positive group in the bilateral limbic (fornix) and association (inferior longitudinal fasciculus and uncinate) fiber tracts. Individual and mean group trajectories for these tracts are presented in Figure 1. The changes from 6 to 24 months in fractional anisotropy for the corpus callosum subdivisions are shown in Figure 2; the change for the body was significantly different in the two groups. For projection tracts, the growth trajectories of the left anterior thalamic radiation and all internal capsule divisions were significantly steeper for the ASD-negative infants (Figure 3).

June 01, 2012
AJP CME Course for June 2012: Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present From 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism
Expires May 31, 2014
Fractional anisotropy values may be generated for white matter fiber tracts. Values in the high range (e.g., 0.8–1.0) are indicative of what quality?

A. Isotropic diffusion

B. Transverse diffusion

C. Weak directional diffusion

D. Strong directional diffusion

At 6 months old, cross-sectional fractional anisotropy values for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-negative and ASD-positive groups differed for which of the following white matter tracts?

A. Right uncinate fasciculus

B. Left inferior longitudinal fasciculus

C. Left anterior thalamic radiation

D. Splenium of corpus callosum

In typical white matter development during infancy, what two processes combine to ensure efficient structural connectivity between brain regions?

A. Axon pruning and myelination

B. Apoptosis and glial cell proliferation

C. Neural refinement and canalization

D. Microglial activation and synaptogenesis


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