This is more or less in line with the general biopsychosocial approach in behavioral sciences (including psychiatry) and this approach in criminology ("scientific" and traditional attempts at understanding and dealing with the universe of human criminal behaviors) can be named as Behavioral Biopsychosocial Criminology.
The legal and nonlegal behaviors can be viewed as the phenomena arranged along the certain severity and typology spectrums, according with the historically, empirically and rationally formed legal concepts of crime and its various and many attempts at deeper and more scientific understandings of phenomena of its subject and these phenomenons' more truthful, useful, practical and efficient classifications.
Under the common law of England, crimes were classified as either treason, felony or misdemeanour, with treason sometimes being included with the felonies. This system was based on the perceived seriousness of the offence. It is still used in the United States but the distinction between felony and misdemeanour is abolished in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.-
In the United States since 1930, the FBI has tabulated Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) annually from crime data submitted by law enforcement agencies across the United States. Officials compile this data at the city, county, and state levels into the UCR. They classify violations of laws based on common law as Part I (index) crimes in UCR data. These are further categorised as violent or property crimes. Part I violent crimes include murder and criminal homicide (voluntary manslaughter), forcible rape, aggravated assault, and robbery; while Part I property crimes include burglary, arson, larceny/theft, and motor-vehicle theft. All other crimes count come under Part II.
For convenience, such lists usually include infractions although, in the U.S., they may come into the sphere not of the criminal law, but rather of the civil law. Compare tortfeasance.
Booking-arrests require detention for a time-frame ranging 1 to 24 hours.
Classification and categorisation
|The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (January 2010)|
Categorisation by type
The following classes of offences are used, or have been used, as legal terms of art:
Researchers and commentators have classified crimes into the following categories, in addition to those above:
- Forgery, personation and cheating
- Firearms and offensive weapons
- Offences against the State/Offences against the Crown and Government/Political offences
- Harmful or dangerous drugs
- Offences against religion and public worship
- Offences against public justice/Offences against the administration of public justice
- Public order offence
- Commerce, financial markets and insolvency
- Offences against public morals and public policy
- Motor vehicle offences
- Conspiracy, incitement and attempt to commit crime
- Inchoate offence
- Juvenile Delinquency
Classification and Typology of Crimes:
Behavioral Biopsychosocial Criminology Approach
The goal of this direction of studies is to to identify the "biopsychosocial": individual biological, psychological (e.g. "intrapsychic", etc.) and social (and group) factors as determinants in criminal behavior with the purpose of control over it and the development of the specific and preventive measures.
The following is the prospective BPS (biopsychosocial ) draft note on attempt at causal, etiological classification of criminal behaviors and crimes as behavioral, (individual and group) phenomena viewed and classified as various, historically formed by the various legal systems and genetically-culturally determined by the various notions of justice, hierarchically organised by severity and types, Offences.
This classification is arranged along the severity and typology spectrums, which can be quantified and elaborated further.
Rigid and super-rigid "legal behaviors" on individual and social levels; structured, (under, over, etc.) societies and cultures with totalitarianism at the one of the spectrum extremes.
Normal Legal Behaviors
(How well are they studied, explored and understood? See "human nature".)
Transgressions: The Misdemeanors
Misdemeanor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In some jurisdictions, those who are convicted of a misdemeanor are known as misdemeanants (as contrasted with those convicted of a felony who are known as felons). Depending on the jurisdiction, examples of misdemeanors may include: petty theft, prostitution, public intoxication,simple assault, disorderly conduct, trespass, vandalism, reckless driving, possession ofmarijuana and in some jurisdictions first-time possession of certain other drugs, and other similar crimes.
"misdemeanants" - characteristics; prospective studies, if any: do they or the proportion of them turn into "felons"; how do they turn out; what happens to them in their lives; do they serve as a reservoir for tghe "felons" group?
"miscreants" (just an association)
Offence against the person - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
of Common Law might be viewed as
The Offenses manifested by the Excess of Individual and Group Aggressions:
Part I violent crimes include murder and criminal homicide (voluntary manslaughter), forcible rape, aggravated assault, and robbery; while Part I property crimes include burglary, arson, larceny/theft, and motor-vehicle theft. All other crimes count come under Part II. (U.S. Classification of Crimes)
For reporting purposes, criminal offenses are divided into two major groups: Part I offenses and Part II offenses.
In Part I, the UCR indexes reported incidents in two categories: violent and property crimes. Aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, and robbery are classified as violent while arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft are classified as property crimes. These are reported via the document named Return A – Monthly Return of Offenses Known to the Police. Part 1 crimes are collectively known as Index crimes, this name is used because the crimes are considered quite serious, tend to be reported more reliably than others, and are reported directly to the police and not to a separate agency (ex- IRS) that doesn't necessarily contribute to the UCR.
In Part II, the following categories are tracked: simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses.
Two property reports are also included with the Return A. The first is the Property Stolen by Classification report. This report details the number of actual crimes of each type in the Return A and the monetary value of property stolen in conjunction with that crime. Some offenses are reported in greater detail on this report than on the Return A. For example, on the Report A, burglaries are divided into three categories: Forcible Entry, Unlawful Entry – No Force, and Attempted Forcible Entry. On the Property Stolen by Classification report, burglaries are divided into six categories based on location type and the time of the offense. Offenses are counted in residences with offense times of 6 p.m. to 6 a.m., 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and Unknown Time and Non-residences with the same three time groupings.
The second property report is the Property Stolen by Type and Value report. The monetary value of both stolen and recovered property are totaled and classified as one of eleven property types-
Individual Aggressions: Offences and Physical Aggression against the person
physical: Offence against the person - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
of Common Law
- Fatal offences :
- Fatal offences
- Murder: murder
- Manslaughter: criminal homicide (voluntary manslaughter)
Sexual Offenses and Aggression:
- Sexual offences:
Material: Offenses and Aggression against Property Rights
robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft
Return A. For example, on the Report A, burglaries are divided into three categories...
Property crime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Mental Aggression and Offenses:
(e.g. "cyberbullying", etc.),
mostly for the "sadistic" aspect of aggression, out of cruelty
Thrill killing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Non-fatal non-sexual offences
W: The crimes are usually grouped together in common law countries as a legacy of the Offences against the Person Act 1861.
Although most sexual offences will also be offences against the person, for various reasons (including sentencing and registration of offenders) sexual crimes are usually categorised separately. Similarly, although many homicides also involve an offence against the person, they are usually categorised under the more serious category.
Offenses against groups, societies, cultures and people
treason: individual's aggression against the group
Gangs and Criminal Groups
The nature of human and animal aggressive behaviors; BPS approach; Lorenz on Aggression; ethology.
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- Crime in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Crime statistics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Uniform Crime Reports - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- National Crime Victimization Survey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- List of countries by intentional homicide rate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Criminal law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Offence against the person - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Felony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Murder - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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