Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Biopsychosocial Systems: some general principles of functioning - working draft

Biopsychosocial Systems: some general principles of functioning - working draft


BPS S - (WS): (cells) individuals, couples, families, groups, societies.


Interpretational nature of all BPS knowledge; pragmatic, utilitarian slant and approach

General Systems Theory  |  von Bertalanffy

George L. Engel

The biopsychosocial paradigm


"Organic" ("Organismic") Theory

organic theory - GS

organic theory of the state - GS

  1. Organic theory of the state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  2. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_theory_of_the_stateCached - Similar
  3. The Organic Theory of the State is a species of political collectivism which maintains that the state transcends individuals within the State in power, right, ...
  4. The organic theory of the State with special reference to Herbert ...

    23 Jun 2011 – The basic idea of the organic theory is to show that the state is, in its nature, like a biological organism or a living being and that the relation ...
  5. Essay on the Organic Theory of State

    The union of individuals forming the State has been described as similar to the union between the several parts of an animal body, wherein all parts are.
  6. Classification of political ideas

    www.slideshare.net/guest9afd54/classification-of-political-ideasCached - Similar
    12 Nov 2007 – The organic theory Likens the state to a living organism, such as a tree. Each part has its different place and function and is dependant on every ...
  7. What is the organic state theory

    wiki.answers.com › ... › CategoriesScienceHistory of ScienceCached - Similar
    It is comparing a state to a living organism. The state needs land to grow such as an organism needs nutrition to grow. Improve answer. First answer by ...


The organic theory of the State with special reference to Herbert Spencer

Ankita (?)

The basic idea of the organic theory is to show that the state is, in its nature, like a biological organism or a living being and that the relation between the state and the individual is the same as between an organism and its cell. The organismic theory is essentially a biological concept which describes the phenomena of the state in biological terms.
According to this theory, the state is not a mere aggregation of individuals, but an organism having parts and organs which are related to one another in the same way as the different organs of an animal or a plant are related to one another.
The theory is as old as political thought itself. Plato compared state to 'A' and man to 'a': it is an individual magnified. He compared the rulers, warriors and working classes to wisdom, courage, and appetite of the individual respectively.
Aristotle drew a comparison between the symmetry of the state and symmetry of the body and believed that the individual is an intrinsic part of the society.
Cicero, a Roman philosopher, also makes a passing reference to this theory. He likened the head of the state to the spirit that rules the body. Hobbes compared the state to a huge, imaginary monster called the Laviathan, which is but an artificial man, of great strength and stature. According to him the state could suffer from human ailments like pleurisy, scabies and boils etc.
Rousseau, a French philosopher, too, compared the "body politic" to the "Human body", both of which he said possessed the "motive power" of "force" and "will" (the legislative power and the executive power). The former was the "heart" of the state; the latter its "brain".
Blunschli, a German philosopher, found a striking resemblance between the state and an organism. According to him the state is not a lifeless mechanism. It has life and spirit. It is not merely a collection of individuals just as an oil painting is not merely a collection of drops of oil-paint.
The state has its own personality independency as that of the individual comprising the state. Idealists described the state as a moral organism but according to Spencer the state is a living organism. He draws an elaborate analogy between the state and a living organism in the following manner:
1. Both state and an organism show a similar process of growth and evolution from simplicity to complexity. State in the beginning was just a tribal organization but it has developed from that primitive stage to the modern complex structure with a multiplicity of functions.
An organism also exhibits similar process of growth. An embryo in the body of the mother is just a lump of flesh but slowly grows to a complete whole with various organs having variety of functions.
Both grow from inside outwards. Each evolves by adjustment and response to environments. In process of growth each undergoes individualization, specialization and differentiation of both organs and functions.
2. Both state and organism have three main systems ; a sustaining system; a distributory system; a regulating system. Sustaining system of an organism consists of digestive system by which food is digested and life of an organism, is sustained.
In the case of the state there is a corresponding sustaining system which consists of agriculture and indus­tries by virtue of which the State is sustained.
The distributing system in an organism consist of circulatory system by which blood is distributed to various parts of the body. In the case of the state, the distributing system consists of transport and communication.
The regulating system of an organism consists of brain and nerves. Governmental and Military system constitute the regulating system in the State. There is thus a parallelism between the ways in which animal and social life are preserved.
3. As an organism is composed of cells, so the state is composed of individuals. In both cases, the component units contribute to the life of the whole.
4. An organism is constantly subjected to the process of constant wear and tear. Old and worn out cells die out and their place is taken by the fresh cells formed by the blood.
In the case of social organism as well old and decrepit individuals die out and their place is taken by the newborns.
5. Health of an organism depends upon the health of the cells organs. In case they get diseased, the whole organism suffers. In the similar way, health of the state depends upon the moral and physical health of the individuals, and associations of individuals.
In case they do not work properly the efficiency and performance of the state is bound to suffer. There is thus a complete interdependence of the parts and the whole in both cases.
6. Both organism and state exhibit a "similar cycle of birth, growth, decay and death. From these points of agreement, the conclusion is drawn that state is an organism and there is a lot of identity between the two.
The state lives, grows and develops much as an individual does.
The theory inevitably leads to the assumption that the individuals comprising the state are completely subordinated to the state just as the cells of the body depend for their life and existence on the organism. Chop off a part of the skin, it ceases to exist.

This theory leads us, therefore, to the conclusion that an individual cannot exist outside the state. The theory thus hits at individual freedom and inevitably leads to the idea of the establishment of totalitarian state or fascism.

[Comments to the above part in italics: This is entirely incorrect. This is the oversimplification and incorrect interpretation and conclusion from this theory. Details will follow later.]


organic theory sociology - GS

Sociological Theory: Emile Durkhiem and Social Solidarity - YouTube


13 Feb 2010 - 9 min - Uploaded by segelgeist
... between traditional "mechanical" solidarity and modern "organic" solidarity. ...Sociological Theory ...

More videos for organic theory sociology »

Scholarly articles for organic theory sociology

organic theory of society - GS

organic theory definition - GS

Organic theory of the state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_theory_of_the_stateCached - Similar
The Organic Theory of the State is a species of political collectivism which maintains that the state transcends individuals within the State in power, right, ...

What is the organic state theory

wiki.answers.com › ... › CategoriesScienceHistory of ScienceCached - Similar
It is comparing a state to a living organism. The state needs land to grow such as an organism needs nutrition to grow. Improve answer. First answer by ...

BPS continuum

Ontogenesis and phylogenesis


Principles of functioning

- Autochthonic (Autochtonic - GS)   (Autochthon - From Wikipedia) nature of "living systems"

- Stimulus and Response; reflexes, "conditioned reflexes", behaviorism

- Summation

- Specialisation

- Hierarchies and centrality

- Boundaries: fixed, semipermeable, permeable; exchange; cell

- Communications

- Memories and Information

- Selective expression: e.g. genes and junk

Links and References

Monday, October 22, 2012

The very uncomfortable "odd ball out" aspect of suicides in the military

The very uncomfortable "odd ball out" aspect of suicides in the military

Sanctity of life is the central part of Judeo-Christian Ethics. Therefore the idea and the consideration of suicide as a result and product of self-regulatory mechanism of military group dynamics aimed at enhancing its cohesion and functional ability by extruding and expelling one of its dysfunctioning members feels foreign and unacceptable to us. However, any human group is a living organism which is governed by its biopsychosocial laws with the same certainty and inevitability as any biological organism is governed by its biological laws. The question is the price: is any presumed or putative advantage in cohesion and functioning worth the loss of human life and the loss of the member of the military community? The answer of course, intuitive but firm, is "no" and "no; under any circumstances". Then, it becomes, again, the issue of better understanding and better management of complex relationships between the military groups and their individual members.

References and Links

military group dynamics

Group Dynamics - Presented by Capt Tim Gleaton, CAP


Perceived cohesion
Perceived Cohesion Scale (PCS) is a six item scale that is used to measure structural cohesion in groups. In 1990, Bollen and Hoyle used the PCS and applied it to a study of large groups which were used to assess the psychometric qualities of their scale.[3]
See also

  1. ^ White, Douglas; Frank Harary (2001). "The Cohesiveness of Blocks in Social Networks: Node Connectivity and Conditional Density." (book). Sociological Methodology 2001 (Blackwell Publishers, Inc., Boston, USA and Oxford, UK.) 31 (1): 305–359. doi:10.1111/0081-1750.00098. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/sm-w23.PDF. Retrieved 2012-08-13
  1. ^ Chin, Wynne W., et al. Perceived Cohesion: A Conceptual and Empirical Examination: Adapting and Testing the Perceived Cohesion Scale in a Small-Group Setting. 1999. Small Group Research 30(6):751-766.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Dance Therapy Links

Dance Therapy Links

The theory of DMT is based upon the idea that “the body and mind are inseparable”.[3]
“Dance movement therapy rests on certain theoretical principles. These are:
  • Body and mind interact, so that a change in movement will affect total functioning
  • Movement reflects personality
  • The therapeutic relationship is mediated at least to some extent non-verbally, for
example through the therapist mirroring the client’s movement
  • Movement contains a symbolic function and as such can be evidence of unconscious process
  • Movement improvisation allows the client to experiment with new ways of being
  • DMT allows for the recapitulation of early object relationships by virtue of the largely non-verbal mediation of the latter”[4]
Through the unity of the body, mind, and spirit, DMT provides a sense of wholeness to all individuals.[3] 



gurdjieff - GS

gurdjieff dance - GS

war dance - GS

A war dance is a dance involving mock combat, usually in reference to tribal warrior societies where such dances were performed as a ritual connected with endemic warfare. Martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music, especially strong percussive rhythms
See also

External links

Seriously consider and explore the possibilities and advantages of Dance Therapy - GS
Let the "gay" and the "straight" guys and garls dance War Dances together. It probably will bond them together as nothing else.
Hire the best dance therapists and composers to create a new therapeutic movement: Military Dance Therapy.

War Dances - YouTube

American Indian Ceremonial and War Dances

Uploaded by on Jun 20, 2011
From a compilation of Native American music entitled "American Indian Ceremonial and War Dances"
Immortals - Dance with Sabers LIVE. "Georgian Fire" National Ballet Metekhi Potskhishvili

Uploaded by on Apr 6, 2010
Immortals - Dance with Sabers LIVE. "Georgian Fire" National Ballet Metekhi Potskhishvili
Национальный балет Грузии «МЕТЕХИ» имини: Поцхишвили. с программой ''Огонь Грузии''

Liberace playing Saber Dance

Uploaded by on Aug 7, 2008
Here is Liberace performing Saber Dance from the 50's

Prokofiev - Dance of the Knights - YouTube Search


PROKOFIEV - Romeo & Juliet - Ballet

Uploaded by on Aug 5, 2007
PROKOFIEV - Romeo and Juliet - Opéra National Paris - Nureyev - Ballet de l'Opera National de Paris - Monique Loudières - Manuel Legris

Profiling approach for identification of potential suicidal behavior

Profiling approach for identification of potential suicidal behavior

(instead of "risk factors")

the same or similar way FBI profiles criminal behaviors

(Morally, in most religions, especially in the Abrahamic ones, it is considered a very serious violation: "you are the slave of God and He only can take your life from you, because it was Him, who granted it to you"; and also on the books in many jurisdictions, still.)

- history of previous suicidal attempts
- history of self-injurious behavior

- Externalised - Internalised Aggression Scale and Index: EA/IA = 1 (+ - 0.5)

- signs of anxiety and depression
- changes in overt behavior

- Socialisation styles: loner or family problems

- Personality styles and vulnerabilities

- "Real Life Problems": financial, family, others

References and Links

profiling - GS


Do we want just to improve the statistics to look better or do we want to address the problem "in-depth"? Or both? Of course both: one purpose does not exclude the other at all; it would be a "false dichotomy". But the statistics have to be truthful. They should be cleaned of "lies and damn lies" as much as possible, otherwise they mislead, which is dangerous epistemologically: the search for truthful and more or less "scientific" explanations has to be based on "clean" and adequately collected factual and data sets.

Seriously consider and explore the possibilities and advantages of Dance Therapy - GS

Saturday, October 20, 2012

Some preliminary conclusions on research into the "psychiatric epidemic" of suicide in the miltary 2000 - 2012

Some preliminary conclusions on research into the "psychiatric epidemic" of suicide in the military 2000 - 2012

The true picture, including the epidemiological one, in the area of suicides in the military and the true state of affairs in the military mental health field is not known to us yet. The deaths suspicious of suicide and the incidents of self-injurious behavior, as well as homicides and other relevant occurrences should be included into the statistics. The sophisticated data collection system needs to be established, socio - and psychometric instruments to be developed and used; theoretical models conceptualised and tested, etc. The riddle might not be solved to provide more or less satisfactory causal explanation for some time, if at all; in the end, all attempts at the explanation are just interpretational hypotheses, due to the specifics of the subject matter: suicide, and the mental health field. Regardless of all the possible hypothetical explanations (which do have to be developed and tested), the general sociotherapeutic sanation measures, including the changes in the military subculture, if needed, should be implemented and continuously improved and refined, with the aim of improving, making more healthy and humane and maximally consistent with the values and norms of larger, mainstream culture, the general emotional climate in military communities and units, and providing the range of various relevant services. This approach might be just as, if not more productive, than the specific "suicide prevention measures", which can continue to stay in place.

Military Psychiatry and Psychology Review

Military Psychiatry and Psychology Review

Suicidology Review: Durkheim, Typology of Suicides

Military Suicidology Review

Topics Review:

Unit Cohesion

Individual and Groups

Military Groups

Structure and Function of Hierarchies

Protective and destructive effects of groups | Typology of Suicides | Suicidal Behaviors as an Escape and Emotional and Social Protest

Protective and destructive effects of groups - GS

The sociological hypothesis of military suicides causation as a destructive effect of a military group (1): a conflict between an individual soldier and his group, his military unit; does not contradict the Durkheim hypothesis of protective effect of groups, as the authors try to prove, but confirms it as a more general paradigm. The authors of this interesting and valuable paper base their thinking on Durkheim's theory and try to disprove it in a particular case of suicides in the military "from within": by operating this theory's own postulates and general conceptual framework (a "paradigm"). This reminds a proverbial "fight with your own shadow". The whole Durkheim's typology of suicides and its value and utility, especially for clinical purposes, should be questioned. It is not used in practical clinical settings. It seems to me that the the simple division of suicides into psychotic and nonpsychotic might be introduced (whatever these terms mean). Suicides in the military are mostly nonpsychotic. They should be divided further, according to the relative preponderance of causative factors into:
- Situational:
caused mostly by external circumstances and as an escape from them.
- Emotional:
due to severe and continuous stresses of various kinds, when the capacity for psychological resilience is stretched to a limit, to a "breaking point". Suicide thus, paradoxically, saves the psyche's integrity, protects the"immortal soul" from its destruction by pain and demoralisation.
- As a form of a conscientious social (and/or political) protest
The latter two are interconnected and practically are the same, since they have both components.
The circumstances of various kinds are also almost always present. Therefore we can try to conceptualise various forms of suicidal behaviors as an Escape and as an Emotional and Social Protest.
Therapeutic intervention should be attempted in all three dimensions and geared specifically to them. For example, a soldier with suicidal thoughts, if they are in any way detected or suspected, might be helped with his/her bank loan, offered individual or family therapy for his/her personal and/or family problems and offered to attend an educational group if he/she does not agree with certain policies or attitudes; overtly or covertly, with the understanding that his/her disagreements or grievances will be heard and their input in resolution of the general issues like these will be appreciated.
The interventions should be attempted at earlier stages, when it did not come to suicidal thoughts yet, and should be of general, mass and routine nature. In other words this is an issue of general and preventive sanation of emotional climate in a military unit or community, including the attitudes, policies and relationships.
Due to centralised structure of military services, the TeleTherapy option with centrally managed referral, recordkeeping, sophisticated data collections and training and and research departments might be the most beneficial option.

References and Links



Individual and Groups

Military Groups

Structure and Function of Hierarchies


Typology of Suicides

Friday, October 19, 2012

The Vulnerability of Desire: Samson syndrome and other stories | Suicides in military history

The Vulnerability of Desire: Samson syndrome and other stories | Suicides in military history

Mark Atteberry (Author) 

Book Description

April 3, 2003

The story of Samson is the perfect vehicle to reveal the twelve tendencies that can bring down strong men: disregarding their boundaries, struggling with lust, ignoring good advice, overestimating their own cleverness, and others.
Written in a compassionate, funny, and practical style, The Samson Syndrome offers readers powerful ideas for making sure they use their greatest strengths to honor God in every situation.



Hadrian sexuality - GS

Shakespear sexuality - GS

Lincoln sexuality - GS

Reflections in a Golden Eye - GS

Stoicism on Desire - GS

Suicidal behaviors in military history: the claim to liberty and victory amidst defeat

Scholarly articles for Suicidal behaviors in military history

Search Results
  1. Largest Ever Study Of Suicide In The Military

    18 Jul 2009 – Historically, the suicide rate has been lower in the military than among ... for research to address, suicidal behavior is a complex phenomenon.
Comments: This is a very important and valuable sociological paper on the subject:

Suicide, Social Integration, and Masculinity in the US Military ...

Nevertheless, the history of suicide within Western military populations provides ..... Understanding suicidal behavior in the military: an evaluation of Joiner's ... 

"These increases in military suicide rates have been striking, even given the notorious difficulties in determining accurate statistics for military suicide. First, suicides among military personnel are frequently misclassified as deaths from accidents or undetermined causes; such classification errors may lead military suicide totals to be as much as 21% higher than reported (Carr, Hoge, Gardner, & Potter,2004, p. 233)."

"These increases in military suicide rates have led a number of experts and commentators to refer to military suicide as a “hidden epidemic” (Sklar,2007). The origins of this epidemic have proven difficult to detect."

"Investigators of military suicide have been cautious about attributing this putative epidemic to a single cause (Stewart, 2009)."

"Finally, the military’s “warrior culture” has been thought to discourage soldiers from speaking openly about their psychological and emotional fragility (Alvarez, 2009;Dinges & Mueller, 2009). This inhibits the ability of mental health practitioners to recognize suicidal individuals and hinders the healing process necessary to overcome suicidal ideation and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Alvarez, 2009; Dinges & Mueller,2009). The lethality of all of these factors is significantly magnified by the ready access to firearms characteristic of military life (Mahon, Tobin, Cusack, Kelleher, & Malone, 2005; Martin,Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Lou, & Tucciarone, 2009)."

"Durkheim’s theory of the protective nature of social integration forms the foundation for what has become known as social capital theory..."

"Identity itself is rewritten through the “depersonalization and deindividuation in which the military, in the form of drills sergeants, must strip the individual of all previous self-definition” (Herbert, 1998, p. 9).

Comments: One of the important factors might be general rigidity of military subculture, code of conduct, discipline and training which place a significantly stringent demands on individual capacity for integrating this image and social role of "ideal (or idealised) soldier" with complexities, paradoxes, contradictions and general "harmoniously chaotic" nature of individual emotional life and deep instinctual drives, with individual "Animula Vagula Blandula"; and more so if it is covered by a mask of omnipotent strength and toughness. One of my clinical observations is that suicides occur more often in those, in whom you relatively suspect and expect it the least, because 1) when you suspect it, you do something to prevent it and 2) the more rigid and inflexible is the mask, designed to convey the sense of invulnerability and health, the more vulnerable and fragile is its carrier and the more chances are there for the "breaking point".

"Gender identity is central to the formation of social capital in the military. Even Stewart (1991, p. 89), whose study does not employ “gender” as a central analytic, describes the military as a “cult of masculinity”.  Melissa S.Herbert (1998, p. 7), in her study of female soldiers, notes that the masculine nature of military society has been so widely recognized that there is “little dispute” over the matter. She argues that the specificity of the military is that it is “structured along the lines of gender, not age, race, or physical fitness” (Herbert,1998,p.7). It is by emphasizing masculinity and rigidly separating the male from the female that the military creates social capital from a group of soldiers whose economic statuses, ethnicities, and ideologies might otherwise place them in conflict with one another (Herbert, 1998; Stewart, 1991). Masculine unity thus forms the “cementing principle” of military life (Harrison, 2003, p. 75)."

Comments: Generally speaking military mentality might be viewed as the expression of the need (and necessity) for masculine (male) control and domination. Hence the historical phenomenon of mass rapes (including the less frequent in recent times, but probably quite wide spread in the past occurrences of male rapes [as a substitute for killing]; turning the defeated male enemy into a woman, both symbolically and to a certain degree in a real sense; thus neutralising and neutering this enemy's threat to the conqueror's own masculinity). Thus for those who viewed gays as "women in male bodies" (and therefore as the potential objects of psychosexual domination and rape), the destruction and deprivation of this institutional notion and image constitute a blow to their own idealised self-image and a social role as dominant heterosexual male warriors and might lead towards unraveling of the deep intrapsychic conflict, especially if the elements of latent homosexuality are present.

"As Whitworth (2008,p.119) notes “recent studies in the USA indicate that between 43 and 60 percent of female enlisted personnel experience some form of physical or sexual harassment or violence”. This physical and sexual abuse attests to the exclusion of women within the military."

Comments: These statistics are truly shocking and feel almost inconceivable. Is it not an indication that something, at some level is deeply wrong with the subculture and prevailing attitudes, and the need for change is ripe?

 "As a result of their exclusion, women in the military may be more prone to externalize their frustration via homicide, rather than internalizing it (as do men) via suicide."

"Tapering the effect of masculine fatalism on suicidal behavior will thus entail addressing military culture directly."

Comments: Apparently, the maximal approximation of military subculture to the norms, values and attitudes of the mainstream culture of the great country would the most healthy, productive and promising approach.


Research Efforts Toward Reducing Suicide Behavior Among Military ...

File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
Reducing Suicide Behavior. Among Military Servicemembers and Veterans. U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Military Operational Medicine ...

  1. [PDF]

    Strategic Direction for the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
    Prevention's (CDC) work to prevent fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior. ..... and active or retired military personnel.2 ... turation, and disconnection from history ...

Marcus Antonius and Cleopathra - GS


Thursday, October 18, 2012

Military Psychology Links

Military Psychology Links

 Gustave Le Bon was a French social psychologist whose seminal study, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (1896) led to the development of group psychology.
Crowd psychology - from Wikipedia

Sigmund Freud: Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego

"What, then, is a ‘group’? How does it acquire the capacity for exercising such a decisive influence over the mental life of the individual? And what is the nature of the mental change which it forces upon the individual?

Adorno - Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda

(Theodor Adorno reprised Freud's essay in 1951 with his Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda, and said that "It is not an overstatement if we say that Freud, though he was hardly interested in the political phase of the problem, clearly foresaw the rise and nature of fascist mass movements in purely psychological categories."[7]  ) - Social psychology - From Wikipedia

group psychology - GS

10 Rules That Govern Groups


Freud and the Institution of Psychoanalytic Knowledge - By Sarah Winter - Google Books

Freud all male institutions psychology - GS

Military Psychology - GS

  1. www.amazon.com/Military-Psychology-Second.../dp/1462506496Cached
  2. Military Psychology,Second Edition: Clinical and Operational Applications [Carrie H. Kennedy,Eric A. Zillmer] on Amazon.com. *FREE* super saver shipping on ...
  3. www.amazon.com › ... › Psychology & CounselingCached
    Janice H. Laurence, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Adult & Organizational Development, Temple University, and editor of the journal Military Psychology.
books.google.com › MedicalPsychiatryGeneral
During wartime, the need for mental health professionals intensifies, and the role they play is increasingly important. This comprehensive professional reference ...