Sunday, October 7, 2012

Suicidology - Links List

Suicidology - Links List

suicide epidemiology

suicidal signs

psychometric assessment of suicidal risk - Google Search

suicide research - GS

Military Suicide Research Consortium


Sexual orientation and suicide
The likelihood of suicide attempts are increased in both gay males and lesbians, as well as bisexuals of both sexes when compared to their heterosexual counterparts.[19][20][21] The trend of having a higher incident rate among females is no exception with lesbians or bisexual females and when compared with homosexual males, lesbians are more likely to attempt than gay or bisexual males.[22]
Studies vary with just how increased the risk is compared to heterosexuals with a low of 0.8-1.1 times more likely for females[23] and 1.5-2.5 times more likely for males.[24][25] The highs reach 4.6 more likely in females[26] and 14.6 more likely in males.[27] 


Historical trends
Historical data show lower suicide rates during periods of war.[45][46][47]


suicide epidemic - Google Search


military suicide epidemilogy


Military Psychiatry - Google Search

military psychiatrist - Google Search



The War Within: Preventing Suicide in the U.S. Military
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
by P SAFETY - Related articles
Review the current evidence detailing suicide epidemiology in the military. • Identify “best-practice” suicide-prevention programs. • Describe and catalog ...

military suicidology

The John Snow Handle

 psychiatric epidemiology

exponential fashion


Suicide as epiphenomenon 



Recognizing the Warning Signs of Suicide


SUICIDE WARNING -- Depression carries a high risk of suicide. Anybody who expresses suicidal thoughts or intentions should be taken very seriously. Do not hesitate to call your local suicide hotline immediately. Call 800-SUICIDE (800-784-2433) or 800-273-TALK (800-273-8255) or the deaf hotline at 800-799-4889.
The best way to minimize the risk of suicide is to know the risk factors and to recognize the warning signs of suicide. Take these signs seriously. Know how to respond to them. It could save someone's life.

How Prevalent Is Suicide?

Suicide is a potentially preventable public health problem. In 2009, the last year for which statistics are available, suicide was the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. That year, there were nearly 37,000 suicides, and 1 million people attempted suicide, according to the Centers for Disease Control.
Men take their lives nearly four times the rate of women, accounting for 79% of suicides in the U.S.

Are There Risk Factors for Suicide?

Risk factors for suicide vary by age, gender, and ethnic group. And risk factors often occur in combinations.
Over 90% of people who die by suicide have clinical depression or another diagnosable mental disorder. Many times, people who die by suicide have a substance abuse problem. Often they have that problem in combination with other mental disorders.
Adverse or traumatic life events in combination with other risk factors, such as clinical depression, may lead to suicide. But suicide and suicidal behavior are never normal responses to stress.
Other risk factors for suicide include:
  • One or more prior suicide attempts
  • Family history of mental disorder or substance abuse
  • Family history of suicide
  • Family violence
  • Physical or sexual abuse
  • Keeping firearms in the home
  • Chronic physical illness, including chronic pain
  • Incarceration
  • Exposure to the suicidal behavior of others

Are There Warning Signs of Suicide?

Warning signs that someone may be thinking about or planning to commit suicide include:
  • Always talking or thinking about death
  • Clinical depression -- deep sadness, loss of interest, trouble sleeping and eating -- that gets worse
  • Having a "death wish," tempting fate by taking risks that could lead to death, such as driving fast or running red lights
  • Losing interest in things one used to care about
  • Making comments about being hopeless, helpless, or worthless
  • Putting affairs in order, tying up loose ends, changing a will
  • Saying things like "it would be better if I wasn't here" or "I want out"
  • Sudden, unexpected switch from being very sad to being very calm or appearing to be happy
  • Talking about suicide or killing one's self
  • Visiting or calling people to say goodbye
Be especially concerned if a person is exhibiting any of these warning signs and has attempted suicide in the past. According to the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, between 20% and 50% of people who commit suicide have had a previous attempt.

 American Foundation for Suicide Prevention 



Blumenthal, Susan and Kupfer, David, (Eds.) Suicide over the life cycle: Risk factors, assessment, and treatment of suicidal patients. Wash., DC: Amer. Psych. Press, 1990.

Hendin, Herbert. Suicide in America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
Maltsberger, J.T. Essential papers on suicide.1996.
Schneidman, Edwin. Definition of suicide. Jason Aronson, 1985.

Youth Suicide
American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research.Calling from the rim: Suicidal behavior among American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Volume 4, Monograph. Denver, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1994.

Bell, Ruth and Lenizeiger Wildflower. Talking with your teenager. New York: Random House, 1983.
Blumenthal, Susan J. and Kupfer, David J. (Eds.). Suicide over the life cycle. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1990.
Borst, Sophie R. Adolescent suicidal behavior: A Clinical-Developmental Perspective. 1960.
Carlson, Trudy. The Suicide of My son: A Story of Childhood Depression. Minnesota: Benline Press, 1995.
Farberow; Norman. Many Faces Of Suicide: Indirect Self-Destructive Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill, 1979.
Farberow; Norman and Schneidman, E.S. The cry for help.New York: McGraw Hill, 1961.
Garland, Sherry. I never knew your name. New York: Ticknor & Fields Books for Young Readers, 1994.
Gordon, Sol. When living hurts. New York: UAHC Press, 1985.
Hendin, Herbert. Suicide in America. W.W. Norton & Company, 1995.
Holinger, Paul. Suicide and homicide among adolescents.Guilford Publications, 1994.
Hyde, Margaret O. and Forsyth, Elizabeth H. Suicide: The Hidden Epidemic. CompCare Publishers, 1978.
Klagsbrun, F. Too Young to Die: Youth and suicide. New York: Pocket Books, 1981.
Klerman, Gerald (Ed.). Suicide & depression among adolescents & young adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1986.
Lettieri, D.J. (Ed.). Drugs and suicide: When other coping strategies fail. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979.
Noam, Gil G. and Borst, Sophie (Eds.). Children, Youth, And Suicide: Developmental Perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 1994.
Peck, M.L., Farberow, N.L., and Litman, R.E. (Eds.). Youth suicide. New York: Springer, 1985.
Perlin, S. (Ed.). A Handbook for the Study of Suicide.New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Pfeffer, C.R. The suicidal child. New York: Guilford Publications, 1986.
Rabkin, B. Growing Up Dead. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, Ltd., 1978.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary J., Bradley, Jon, and Obolensky, Nina.Planning to live: Evaluating and treating suicidal teens in community settings. National Resource Center for Youth Services, 1990.
Shneidman, Edwin. Definitions of suicide. John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
Slaby, Andrew and Garfinkel, Lili Frank. No One Saw My Pain: Why Teens Kill Themselves. 1995.
Sudak, H., Ford, A.B. and Rushforth, N.B. (Eds.). Suicide in the Young. Boston: John Wright/ PSG, Inc., 1984.

Suicide Prevention
Hipple, J. and P. Combolic (Eds.). The Counselor and Suicidal Crisis: Diagnosis and Intervention. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1979.

Leenaars, Antoon. Treatment of suicidal people. Hemisphere Publications, 1994.
McEvoy, Alan. Preventing youth suicide. 1994.
Mufson, Laura, Donna Moreau, Myrna Weissman, Gerald Klerman.Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. New York: Guilford Press, 1993.
Schneidman, E.S. Psychology of Suicide: A clinician's guide to evaluation and treatment. 1995.
Zimmerman, James and Asnis, Gregory. Treatment approaches with suicidal adolescents. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Alexander, Paul. Rough magic: A biography of Sylvia Plath. New York: Penguin Group, 1991.
American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research.Calling from the rim: Suicidal behavior among American Indian and Alaska Native adolescents. Volume 4, Monograph. Denver, CO: University Press of Colorado, 1994.
Bender, David L., Leone, Bruno and Roleff, Tamara. Suicide: Opposing viewpoints. California: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1998.
Brown, George W. and Harris, Tirril. Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: The Free Press, 1978.
Carlson, Trudy. The suicide of my son: A story of childhood depression. Minnesota: Benline Press, 1995.
Cobain, Bev. When Nothing Matters Anymore: A survival guide for depressed teens. Minnesota: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc., 1998.
Conroy, David L. Out of the nightmare: recovery from depression and suicidal pain. New York: New Liberty Press, 1991.
Cook, John. How to help someone who is depressed, or suicidal: Practical suggestions from a survivor. Connecticut: Rubicon Press, Inc., 1993.
Cronkite, Kathy. On the edge of darkness. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
Ellis, Thomas E. and Newman, Cory F. Choosing to live: How to defeat suicide through cognitive therapy. New Harbinger Publications, Inc., 1996.
Gordon, Sol. When living hurts. New York: UAHC Press, 1985.
Griffith, Gail. Will’s Choice: A Suicidal Teen, a Desperate Mother and a Chronicle of Recovery. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.
Grinker, Roy R., Miller, Julian, Sabshin, Melvin, Nunn, Robert, and Nunnally, Jum. The phenomena of depressions. Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1961.
Hoch, Paul H. and Zubin, Joseph. Depression. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1954.
Klerman, Gerald L., Weissman, Myrna M., Rounsaville, Bruce J., and Chevron, Eve S. Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. Basic Books, 1984.
Lesser, Rika. All we need of hell: Poems. Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1995.
McIntosh, John L., Santos, John F., Hubbard, Richard W., and Overholser, James C. Elder suicide: Research, theory and treatment. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
Mufson, Laura, Moreau, Donna, Weissman, Myrna M., and Klerman, Gerald L. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents. Guilford Press, 1995.
Papolos, Demitri and Papolos, Janice. Overcoming depression. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Roy, Alec (Ed.). Suicide. Williams & Wilkins, 1986.
Shneidman, Edwin S., Farberow, Norman L. and Litman, Robert E.The Psychology of Suicide. New York: Science House, 1970.
Slaby, Andrew and Garfinkel, Lili F. No one saw my pain: Why teens kill themselves. W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
Styron, William. Darkness visible: A memoir of madness.New York: Random House, 1990.

Other Topics
Alexander, Paul. Rough magic: A biography of Sylvia Plath. New York: Penguin Books, 1991.

Canetto, Silvia. Women and suicidal behavior. Springer Publications, 1994.
Hendin, Herbert. Seduced by death: Doctors, patients, and the Dutch cure. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996.
Jamison, Kay. Touched with fire: Manic-depressive illness and the artistic temperament. New York: The Free Press, 1993.
McIntosh, John. Elder suicide: Research, theory, and treatment. American Psychological Assoc., 1994.
Pfeffer, Cynthia. The suicidal child. New York: Guilford Publications, 1986.
Rosenberg, Mark and Mary Ann Fenly (Eds.) Violence in America: A public health approach. New York: Oxford Press, 1991.
Styron, William. Darkness visible. New York: Random House, 1990.


The latest data available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that 38,364 suicide deaths were reported in the U.S. in 2010. This latest rise places suicide again as the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. Nationally, the suicide rate increased 3.9 percent over 2009 to equal approximately 12.4 suicides per 100,000 people. The rate of suicide has been increasing since 2000. This is the highest rate of suicide in 15 years.


  • Psychiatric Disorders
    At least 90 percent of people who kill themselves have a diagnosable and treatable psychiatric illnesses -- such as major depression, bipolar depression, or some other depressive illness, including:
    Alcohol or drug abuse, particularly when combined with depression
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, or some other anxiety disorder
    Bulimia or anorexia nervosa
    Personality disorders especially borderline or antisocial
  • Past History of Attempted Suicide
    Between 20 and 50 percent of people who kill themselves had previously attempted suicide. Those who have made serious suicide attempts are at a much higher risk for actually taking their lives.
  • Genetic Predisposition
    Family history of suicide, suicide attempts, depression or other psychiatric illness.
  • Neurotransmitters
    A clear relationship has been demonstrated between low concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleactic acid (5-HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid and an increased incidence of attempted and completed suicide in psychiatric patients.
  • Impulsivity
    Impulsive individuals are more apt to act on suicidal impulses.
  • Demographics
    Males are three to five times more likely to die by suicide than females.
    Age: Elderly Caucasian males have the highest suicide rates.
Suicide Crisis
A suicide crisis is a time-limited occurrence signaling immediate danger of suicide. Suicide risk, by contrast, is a broader term that includes the above factors such as age and sex, psychiatric diagnosis, past suicide attempts, and traits like impulsivity. The signs of crisis are:
  • Precipitating Event
    A recent event that is particularly distressing such as loss of loved one or career failure. Sometimes the individuals own behavior precipitates the event: for example, a man's abusive behavior while drinking causes his wife to leave him.
  • Intense Affective State in Addition to Depression
    Desperation (anguish plus urgency regarding need for relief), rage, psychic pain or inner tension, anxiety, guilt, hopelessness, acute sense of abandonment.
  • Changes in Behavior
    suggesting the individual is close to suicide. Such speech may be indirect. Be alert to such statements as, "My family would be better off without me." Sometimes those contemplating suicide talk as if they are saying goodbye or going away.
    Actions ranging from buying a gun to suddenly putting one's affairs in order.
    Deterioration in functioning at work or socially, increasing use of alcohol, other self-destructive behavior, loss of control, rage explosions.

Warning Signs of Suicide

Suicide can be prevented. While some suicides occur without any outward warning, most people who are suicidal do give warnings. Prevent the suicide of loved ones by learning to recognize the signs of someone at risk, taking those signs seriously and knowing how to respond to them.

Warning signs of suicide include:
  • Observable signs of serious depression:
    Unrelenting low mood
    Anxiety, psychic pain and inner tension
    Sleep problems
  • Increased alcohol and/or other drug use
  • Recent impulsiveness and taking unnecessary risks
  • Threatening suicide or expressing a strong wish to die
  • Making a plan:
    Giving away prized possessions
    Sudden or impulsive purchase of a firearm
    Obtaining other means of killing oneself such as poisons or medications
  • Unexpected rage or anger
The emotional crises that usually precede suicide are often recognizable and treatable. Although most depressed people are not suicidal, most suicidal people are depressed. Serious depression can be manifested in obvious sadness, but often it is rather expressed as a loss of pleasure or withdrawal from activities that had been enjoyable. One can help prevent suicide through early recognition and treatment of depression and other psychiatric illnesses.


When You Fear Someone May Take Their Life 

Most suicidal individuals give some warning of their intentions. The most effective way to prevent a friend or loved one from taking his or her life is to recognize the factors that put people at risk for suicide, take warning signs seriously and know how to respond.

Know the Facts

More than 90 percent of people who kill themselves are suffering from one or more psychiatric disorders, in particular:
  • Major depression (especially when combined with alcohol and/or drug abuse)
  • Bipolar depression
  • Alcohol abuse and dependence
  • Drug abuse and dependence
  • Schizophrenia
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Eating disorders
  • Personality disorders
Depression and the other mental disorders that may lead to suicide are -- in most cases -- both recognizable and treatable. Remember, depression can be lethal.
The core symptoms of major depression are a "down" or depressed mood most of the day or a loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were previously enjoyed for at least two weeks, as well as:
  • Changes in sleeping patterns
  • Change in appetite or weight
  • Intense anxiety, agitation, restlessness or being slowed down
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Decreased concentration, indecisiveness or poorer memory
  • Feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, self-reproach or excessive or inappropriate guilt
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Between 25 and 50 percent of people who kill themselves had previously attempted suicide. Those who have made suicide attempts are at higher risk for actually taking their own lives.
Availability of means
  • In the presence of depression and other risk factors, ready access to guns and other weapons, medications or other methods of self-harm increases suicide risk.

Recognize the Imminent Dangers

The signs that most directly warn of suicide include:
  • Threatening to hurt or kill oneself
  • Looking for ways to kill oneself (weapons, pills or other means)
  • Talking or writing about death, dying or suicide
  • Has made plans or preparations for a potentially serious attempt
Other warning signs include expressions or other indications of certain intense feelings in addition to depression, in particular:
  • Insomnia
  • Intense anxiety, usually exhibited as psychic pain or internal tension, as well as panic attacks
  • Feeling desperate or trapped -- like there's no way out
  • Feeling hopeless
  • Feeling there's no reason or purpose to live
  • Rage or anger
Certain behaviors can also serve as warning signs, particularly when they are not characteristic of the person's normal behavior. These include:
  • Acting reckless or engaging in risky activities
  • Engaging in violent or self-destructive behavior
  • Increasing alcohol or drug use
  • Withdrawing from friends or family

Take it Seriously

  • Fifty to 75 percent of all suicides give some warning of their intentions to a friend or family member.
  • Imminent signs must be taken seriously.