Thursday, September 13, 2012

Behavioral Analysis of Criminogenic Situation in Puerto Rico - Outline of the working draft

Behavioral Analysis of Criminogenic Situation in Puerto Rico - Outline of the working draft

Behavioral Analysis of Crime and Criminogenic Situations - Outline of the working draft

Behavioral Analysis of Crime and Criminogenic Situations
Outline of the working draft
Crime and its causation


Adherence to Law is innate and is a part of "normal" and healthy psyche. The intricacies of Law are not taught to children and even to adults, however most of them do know the difference between "right and wrong" and what should or should not be done, and how they should or should not behave. The healthy and law abiding citizens, led by healthy and law abiding governments and their leaders make healthy and law abiding societies, which make healthy and lawful international order. Conversely, individual psychopathology is the main cause of social pathologies. This logically leads to the issue of role and importance of comprehensive  and scientifically empirically based mental health services.

Any religion contains interconnected moral and legal proscriptions which are perceived by their adherents as one and the same.

The Ten Commandments is the case in point.

The more complex is the social structure, the more complex (containing and integrating the seemingly contradictory and mutually exclusive aspects) is the set of moral rules and laws they have.

If the Law is mostly innate, then everyone has his/her "individual set of legal rules" which might or might not coincide, fully or partially, with the universally accepted sets.

These universal and individual sets are also class and culture bound.
"Quod licet Iovi, non licet bovi": what is allowed to jupiters usually is not allowed to bulls and vice versa; and since it is the jupiters, who make the rules, they "always win". Upper classes enjoy greater flexibility in observance and application of laws, which is balanced by their, usually, greater strength of inner law and the sense of responsibility; lower classes violate the written and unwritten laws more often because they were not written and established by them and are not necessarily accepted by them as inner moral and legal imperatives.

This individual, class and cultural variability creates a rather polymorphous legal environment.

Individual criminal activity usually forms a certain, internally lifetime consistent pattern, a "criminal profile", which is a behavioral expression of underlying individual psychopathology. Killers usually continue to kill, rapist continue to rape, thieves continue to steal, and the so called "psychopaths" continue to exploit and swindle, etc. The stability of this criminological patterns indicates the need to address and treat the underlying psychopathology rather than to apply the punishments, which are the forms of social retaliation rather then solution of the problem, and usually are ineffective, given the high rates of recidivism and, probably, paradoxically, reinforcing, due to associated overt or covert anger.
With all that, the behavioral approach: "tit for tat" and inevitability of punishment probably remain the most effective, historically formed interventions.

Criminogenic situations should be viewed as products of activities of criminal groups of various, hierarchically positioned, sizes: from small groups to various gangs to criminal societies.

Links and References

Categorisation by type
The following classes of offences are used, or have been used, as legal terms of art:
Researchers and commentators have classified crimes into the following categories, in addition to those above:

Causes and correlates of crime
Many different causes and correlates of crime have been proposed with varying degree of empirical support. They include socioeconomic, psychological, biological, and behavioral factors. Controversial topics include media violence research and effects of gun politics.


 The causes of crime is one of the major research areas in criminology. A large number of narrow and broad theories have been proposed for explaining crime.


Criminal Triad Theory
Criminal triad theory is a relatively new theory of criminality that looks at the interplay of three psychosocial developmental processes (attachment, moral development, and identity-formation) in the development of a person's internal deterrence system during adolescence.

Biosocial criminology

Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recognizes the potential contributions of fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology.[8] 



Predictive Value of Dreams - Outline of the working draft

Predictive Value of Dreams - Outline of the working draft

References and Links

Predictive Value of Dreams - Google Search

Apparent precognition of real events
According to surveys, it is common for people to feel their dreams are predicting subsequent life events.[84] Psychologists have explained these experiences in terms of memory biases, namely a selective memory for accurate predictions and distorted memory so that dreams are retrospectively fitted onto life experiences.[84] The multi-faceted nature of dreams makes it easy to find connections between dream content and real events.[85]
In one experiment, subjects were asked to write down their dreams in a diary. This prevented the selective memory effect, and the dreams no longer seemed accurate about the future.[86] Another experiment gave subjects a fake diary of a student with apparently precognitive dreams. This diary described events from the person's life, as well as some predictive dreams and some non-predictive dreams. When subjects were asked to recall the dreams they had read, they remembered more of the successful predictions than unsuccessful ones.[87]


Precognition - In dreams
Louisa Rhine at the Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University compiled the best-known and largest body of dream evidence.[55] Dr. Rhine collected over 7000 accounts of ESP experiences. The majority of these accounts were dream related and were seemingly precognitive in nature. The material for this work was collected by advertisements in various well-known popular media.[56]
David Ryback, a psychologist in Atlanta, used a questionnaire survey approach to investigate precognitive dreaming in college students. His survey of over 433 participants showed that 290 or 66.9 percent reported some form of paranormal dream. He rejected many of these claims and reached a conclusion that 8.8 percent of the population was having actual precognitive dreams.[57]
An early inquiry into this phenomenon was done by Aristotle in his On Divination in Sleep. His criticism of these claims appeals to the fact that "the sender of such dreams should be God", and "the fact that those to whom he sends them are not the best and wisest, but merely commonplace persons." Thus: "Most [so-called prophetic] dreams are, however, to be classed as mere coincidences...", here "coincidence" being defined by Aristotle as that which does not take "place according to a universal or general rule" and referring to things which are not of themselves by necessity causally connected. His example being taking a walk during an eclipse, neither the walk nor the eclipse being apparently causally connected and so only by "coincidence" do they occur simultaneously.[58]
Other researchers in this area are more guarded in their reports on the value or use of dreams. In his book The Interpretation of Dreams, first published at the end of the 19th century, Sigmund Freud argued that the foundation of all dream content is the fulfillment of wishes, conscious or not and devoid of psychic content.[citation needed] On the other hand, Freud's view of precognition evolved. According to Jung, Freud's "materialistic prejudice" and "shallow positivism" lead him to reject the entire complex of questions relating to precognition and the occult as "nonsensical."[59] But years later, adds Jung, Freud both "recognized the seriousness of parapsychology and acknowledged the factuality of 'occult' phenomena."[60]
Dreams which appear to be precognitive may in fact be the result of the "Law of Large Numbers". Robert Todd Carroll, author of "The Skeptic's Dictionary" put it this way: "Say the odds are a million to one that when a person has a dream of an airplane crash, there is an airplane crash the next day. With 6 billion people having an average of 250 dream themes each per night, there should be about 1.5 million people a day who have dreams that seem clairvoyant."[61] 


precognition in dreams research - Google Search

precognition in dreams - Google Search

premonition dreams - Google Search


joseph dreams - Google Search